International Management Review ISSN 1551-6849

Published bi-annually in March and September
IMR JOURNAL: ISSN 1551-6849
IMR is also distributed in China by China National Publications Import & Export Corporation: 714B0761

International Management Review (IMR) is a peer-reviewed journal published twice a year since 2004. IMR strives to strengthen local and cross-continental business management understanding, and creation of a global body of management knowledge by fostering dialogue among academics, researchers, and professionals from all over the world. IMR publishes both empirical and conceptual papers as well as articles that address emerging trends and concerns in the area of management, management science, management engineering, and other fields related to the broader scope of management.

The International Management Review (IMR) Journal invites the submission of papers for publication consideration. The goal of IMR is to facilitate management knowledge exchange among researchers and practitioners. IMR publishes biannually empirial and conceptual papers and scholarly researches.

The IMR independent website: www.usimr.org

Current Issue Vol 13, No 1, 2017

Authors

Richard E. Kopelmanis Professor of Management at the Zicklin School of Business of Baruch College, and Academic Director of the Executive Master of Science in Industrial and Labor Relations (MSILR) Program. Previously, he was the Academic Co-Director of the Baruch/Cornell MSILR Program (1985-1998).The author of more than 100 published articles and chapters in academic and professional publications, Dr. Kopelman's research has focused on improving work motivation, productivity, and organizational Sample publications include his text (McGraw-Hill) Managing Productivity in Work Organizations and the article, "Managing for Productivity: One-Third of the Job," (National Productivity Review). He presently serves on the Editorial Review Boards of three journals: the Journal of Psychology, the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, and the Journal of Organizational Excellence. He has consulted for several corporations and non-profit/ government organizations. As a consultant (for more than 25 years) he has focused on improving organizational effectiveness through enhanced employee work motivation, improved employee selection, and supervisory training. In recent years his consulting has primarily been with health care organizations.

David J. Prottas

Adelphi University, NY, USA

Abstract

The Cube One framework posits that employee-, customer-, and enterprise-directed practices are positively related to organizational performance. However, to date, published survey research on the Cube One framework has only been conducted with data from U.S samples. The literature on multination management has historically advocated that management practices be sensitive to and accommodative of differences in national cultures. However, recent meta-analytic research has found that management practices need not conform to national cultures. The present research, viewing the question of cultural fit agnostically, examines data on management practices pertinent to the Cube One framework in three national cultures. Identical measures (with translation into Portuguese for Brazil) were employed. Results indicate that the Cube One framework is valid in all three nations. However, national culture did moderate the magnitudes of practices.

Keywords

Cube one framework, Multinational examination, Culture, National Culture

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Authors

Ronny Richardson is a Professor of Operations Management in the Coles College of Business at Kennesaw State University. His research and teaching interests are in the areas of operations management, statistics, project management, and computers. He is the author of 22 books and over 500 published articles. He has consulted with several major companies in the areas of production and inventory control. Prior to teaching, he worked for Georgia Power Company.

Max North is a tenured Professor of Management Information Systems in the Business Administration Department. He has been teaching, conducting research and providing community service for Computer Science and Information Systems departments at higher education institutions for more than twenty years. He holds an associate degree in Accounting, a bachelor's degree in Economic Management, a master's degree in Computer Science with a concentration in Management Information Systems and a Ph.D. in Psychology with concentration in Cognitive and Behavior Sciences. Dr. North has been successfully involved in the research of Human-Computer Interaction/Interface; Information Security and Ethics Awareness; and Virtual Reality Technology. Dr. North is the director of Visualization and Simulation Research Center. Additionally, Dr. North has several published books, book chapters, and a number of technical referred scholarly articles. He has served as principal/co-principal investigator on a number of research grants sponsored by the Boeing Company, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, the National Science Foundation, and the National Security Agency. Dr. North's major contribution to the scientific community is his discovery and continuous research activities in the innovative area of virtual reality technology, which has received international attention and coverage in the scientific community and popular media.

Abstract

Ransomware is a rapidly growing threat to the data files of individuals and businesses. It encrypts files on an infected computer and holds the key to decrypt the files until the victim pays a ransom. This malware is responsible for hundreds of millions of dollars of losses annually. Due to the large amounts of money to be made, new versions appear frequently. This allows bypassing antivirus software and other intrusion detection methods. In this paper, we present a brief history of ransomware, the arguments for and against paying the ransom, best practices to prevent an infection, and to recover from an infection should one happen.

Keywords

Crypto, Locker, Malware, Ransomware

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Author

Karen E. Rumschlag is an educator of mathematics at Hopewell-Loudon School. Her research and teaching interest are in the areas of education administration and supervision, teacher burnout, and teaching in a rural school atmosphere. She has worked in the education profession for 23 years.

Abstract

Teacher burnout is a chronic phenomenon that causes high percentage of attrition in the education profession. If not handled effectively, burnout can increase absenteeism and counterproductive instruction which negatively impacts quality of learning for students. Teacher attrition cost school districts billions of dollars per year across the United States. In this quantitative research, the psychological breakdown of a teacher burnout experience was attempted to be quantified. Data was collected from 162 rural Ohio school teachers and measured teachers’ sense of personal accomplishment, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization as three identified components of burnout. Results showed that burnout experience significantly varied by gender regardless of teaching experience. The results of this study may lead to gender specific intervention techniques to normalize the burnout effect.

Keywords

Burnout, Depersonalization, Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment, Teacher Attrition, Veteran Teachers

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Authors

Kamal Dahbur is a Professor in the Department of Information Systems at Taibah University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. He is an accomplished researcher, professor and manager who worked for about thirty years in business and academia in the fields of in information systems and computer science. He has done extensive work in the use of information systems in criminal investigations. Dr. Dahbur research interests include knowledge management, data mining, business intelligence, cloud computing, and information security.

kdahbur@taibahu.edu.sa

Dept. of Information Systems

Taibah University, KSA

Ziad Bashabsheh holds a MSc. in Information Security and is currently the Security Services Manager at Accenture Company, United Arab Emirates. He has over 13 years of information security and technology experience providing education, professional security services and solutions to various clients. Mr. Bashabsheh in a subject matter expert in many areas of information systems and security including, but not limited to, GRC, contingency planning, cloud computing, digital forensics, awareness training, and SOC and SIEM solutions.

ziadcom@yahoo.com

Accenture Middle East B.V.

Abu Dhabi, UAE

Deema Bashabsheh holds a BA. in English for Specific Purposes and a Higher Diploma in Information Communication Technology. She is currently an English Instructor and Examination Supervisor in the English Language Training Center at Royal Jordanian Air Academy, Jordan. She specializes in teaching English for Specific Purposes Courses. Deema interests include, but not limited to, professional observer training course, aviation English for pilots, technical English for engineering, and basic instructional techniques.

deema_ffb@yahoo.com

Royal Jordanian Air Academy

Amman, Jordan

Abstract

Cyber security is a global concern for the whole digital world because of increased reliance on information systems and services. Security threats can have negative impact on the reputation and assets of an organization as well as adversely affect the legal and regulatory compliance of the organization. Security awareness is a primary pillar of security for any organization to avoid major security breaches. The increased importance and need for information security has however been met with very little research and publications that address the status of security in different organizations across the globe. This research continues a previous research that investigated security issues in public and private organizations in Amman, Jordan (Dahbur, Isleem, & Ismail, 2012). This research utilizes a modified version of questionnaire surveys that have been developed based on the current and common threat profiles. The surveys were dispersed to a large number of participants employed in diverse organizations to ensure statistical significance. The results were carefully analyzed and compared with previous research to study the persistence and changes in security factors and variables. The study also provides an assessment of security awareness to detect and address the main security issues such as vulnerability to threats, security training, and implemented security polices and measures. Conclusions and recommendations are proposed based on the results of this study and the comparison of the current results with the previous research.

Keywords

Information Security, Physical Security, Phishing, Security Awareness, Security Risk, Security Policy, Security Training, Social Engineering, Cybercrime

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Authors

Moumita Chatterjee is the currently working as Assistant Professor in Department of Commerce & Management, Brainware University, Barasat, Kolkata. Altogether she possesses 8 years 6 months of teaching experience in subjects like HRM, OB, Behavioral Science, QT, Statistics, Economics. At present she is pursuing PhD in the Department of Management, University of Calcutta. She is UGC NET qualified (HRM/Labor Welfare/IR) in December 2013. Prior to this, she has done MSc (Economics) from University of Calcutta in 2006 & MBA (Human Resource Management & Marketing Management) from EIM (affiliated to University of Kalyani) in 2008. She has experience in supervising dissertations in BBA and MBA classes. She has expertise in checking answer scripts for the examination papers of Brainware University, University of Calcutta, Jadavpur University, and MAKAUT (formerly known as WBUT) as examiner. She has proved herself at guiding the students by using interactive discussions and hands-on approaches in identifying needs, designing teaching curriculum and interacting with students and the community to build a college environment that maximizes student learning, academic performance & social growth. Formerly she was associated as Assistant Professor at CIEM, BSM, IILM (BS) Kolkata.

Madhumita Mohanty is currently working as Professor in the Indian Institute of Social Welfare & Business Management (IISWBM), a premier business school of India and the first management institute of South East Asia, affiliated to the University of Calcutta. She has done her Masters and M. Phil. from Utkal University, the Advanced Centre for Psychology, UGC, India. She completed her PhD from the prestigious Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur in 1997, and has more than 25 years of teaching, research, and consulting experience. Apart from teaching in Organisational Behaviour, Change Management and Organisational Development, 8 students are doing Ph. D. under her guidance as main guide from Calcutta University, Aligarh Muslim University, SIKSHA “O” ANUSANDHAN UNIVERSITY (SOAU) etc. One has already awarded the degree. Her papers have been published in various national and international referred journals. She has participated many conferences – national and international levels, on management and health issues. Apart from teaching and research, she had consultancy experience on behavioral/soft skill training. She had organized many Management Development Programmes (MDPs) for UCO Bank, CMC Delhi, WIMCO Limited, Power Grid Corporation, Indian Railways, and had been invited as guest speaker in more than 90 MDPs organized by Reserve Bank, Allahabad Bank, Hindustan Lever, DVC, Coal India, GRSE, Postal Department, Indian Audits and Accounts Department, Indian Institute of Port Management, NIT Rourkela, IIT Patna etc. She has acted as an external expert for interview panel in Bank of Baroda, HPCL, Hindustan Paper Corporation Limited, DVC, Coal India etc. during 2013-2016.

Abstract

This study examines branch managers’ perception of their own leadership and motivational styles in different public/ private sector banks in Kolkata. A random sample of 302 bank managers/ AGMs is studied and the result shows that the leaders’ demographic profiles are not predicting factors in determining leadership (transactional/transformational/ laissez faire), (authoritarian/ participative/ delegative) and motivation style (intrinsic / extrinsic). But, the types of the bank (public/private) predict their transactional/transformational/ laissez-faire leadership style. In public banks, branch managers/ AGMs are more transformational as compared to the same in private banks. Again, types of banks have no impact upon leadership (authoritarian/ participative/ delegative) and motivational style (intrinsic/ extrinsic).

Keywords

Transactional/Transformational/Laissez-faire leadership style, Authoritarian/ Participative/ Delegative leadership styles, Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation

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Authors

Ahmad Nasser Abuzaid received his Ph.D. from Amman Arab University. He is an Assistant Professor of Business Administration and head of business administration department at business faculty at Tafila Technical University. His current research interests include strategic management, leadership, and business ethics.

Business Administration Department, Business Faculty

Tafila Technical University, Tafila, Jordan

Abstract

Due to the turbulent business environment which characterized by constant changes and the hyper competition that came as a result of technological advancement and using the innovative ways in conducting business, the organizations need to adopt the entrepreneurial orientation that enables them to achieve the superiority over competitors and preserve its survival. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the impact of strategic intelligence on the entrepreneurial orientation of the (36) Jordanian diversified financial services companies listed in Amman stock exchange. The sample of the study includes all the study population. The sampling unit and analysis (respondents) composed of the Chairman of Board of Directors, Chief Executive Officer (CEO), and Executive Vice President of the target companies of all target companies. In order to achieve the study objectives, the researcher designed a questionnaire to collect the required data from study sample. To test the hypotheses the multiple regression analysis used. Empirical results indicated that the strategic intelligence has a positive impact on entrepreneurial orientation. Based on the results of the study, the organizations need to enhance the ability of their top management in the elements of strategic intelligence that include: foresight, visioning, and motivating. In addition, researchers should conduct additional studies in strategic intelligence and entrepreneurial orientation in the different industries and contexts, especially in the manufacturing companies and taking other dimensions of strategic intelligence rather than foresight, visioning, and motivating.

Keywords

Strategic Intelligence, Entrepreneurial Orientation, Risk Taking, Innovativeness, Proactivness, Competitive Aggressiveness.

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Authors

Huixiong Chen

Business School, Zhejiang University of Finance & Economics, Hangzhou, China

Email: chx@zufe.edu.cn

Abstract

The traditional consumption function theory is based on various income hypotheses, which ignore the important fact that different consumers have different cost of living. It is a substantial influence on the consumer behavior, such as the marginal propensity to consume and the equilibrium of the consumer. The theory has obvious defects. It is believed that life cost and income marginal equilibrium is the basic rule for human beings’ living activities. Money (wage) is the revenue from the expenditure of life cost. And different consumers pay different life cost for same income. Based on this thought, the article brings forward the life cost hypothesis, based on which a new consumption function is established and the consumer equilibrium formula is created. The conclusion of this article is: the crucial factor for consumption is not the income level of the consumer, but is related to the life cost expenditure for gaining a certain income, i.e. the difficulty of gaining income. This finding proves that low wage is the important reason for the low consumption rate of some countries.

Keywords

life cost hypothesis; consumer expenditure behavior; consumer equilibrium; consumption function

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Authors

Langdon Morris InnovationLabs, recognized as one of the leading innovation consulting firms worldwide. He is also a Senior Editor of The International Journal of Innovation Science and a board member of the International Association of Innovation Professionals. He is author of “The Innovation Master Plan” and “Permanent Innovation,” and co-author of “Fourth Generation R&D: Managing Knowledge, Technology, and Innovation,” Wiley, 1999. This work is now judged to be a classic in the field, the defining statement about the management of R&D for breakthrough innovation. He is also author of two other books: Managing the Evolving Corporation, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995 and The Knowledge Channel: Corporate Strategies for the Internet, iUniverse, 1998. His writings appear regularly in many periodicals worldwide. He speaks frequently at industry gatherings and company meetings worldwide. He has taught Business Strategy at the graduate level at the Universidad de Belgrano, Buenos Aires, and the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris.

Moses Ma

FutureLab Consulting, Inc

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