International Management Review- Previous Issues

Authors

Christie Hui-chuan Chen and Monty Taylor

University of Tennessee at Martin

College of Business and Global Affairs, TN, USA

hchen38@utm.edu

mtaylo96@utm.edu

Abstract

As long-term care facilities strive to improve performance in the US healthcare industry, most research studies on long-term care have focused on quality improvement and reduced deficiencies. This present study provides a different view of how external pressure affects adaptive capability at the firm level. Moreover, a firm’s ability to utilize various adaptive strategies benefits employee learning, which affects job satisfaction, operational efficiency, and supply chain relationships of the providers. Our findings reveal that government regulation has an important influence on the capabilities of skilled nursing facilities, which further enhances the firm’s operational performance while improving supply chain collaboration.

Keywords

health care; institutional theory; adaptive capability; job satisfaction; operational efficiency

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Authors

Albi Alikaj, Cau Ngoc Nguyen and Wei Ning

Texas A&M International University, TX, USA

Abstract

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has received the attention of many organizational decision makers. In this paper, we examine how an external factor, such as industry concentration, affects levels of investment in CSR. We also combine its effects with R&D intensity, an internal resource, to examine the dual effect on CSR, as well as on firm financial performance. It was found that CSR, when considered as a strategic asset to the firm, is positively related to firm financial performance. The study also showed that while industry concentration directly affects R&D intensity, it does not directly affect investments in CSR.

Keywords

corporate social responsibility; industry concentration; R&D intensity; firm performance

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Authors

Abeer F.A. Al Abbadi

The World Islamic Sciences and Education University, Jordan- Amman abeer_abadei@yahoo.com

Asma'a Al-Amarneh

Financial and Banking Sciences Department Faculty of Economic and Administration Science, Appliedn Science private University. Jordan Jordan-Amman

Marwan Mohammad Abuorabi

Department of Finance and Banking, Faculty of Business and Finance The World Islamic Sciences and Education University, Jordan

Abstract

The decision of paying dividends is considered one of the most important and hardest that must be taken by an organization's management in accordance with its objectives, its future, and its value to the market. The decision trades off between two choices: the dividends to shareholders or the detention of those retained earnings to be invested in new activities in order to achieve more profits. This paper aims to identify the impact of dividends' policies on the stock value of companies. The results show that there is an impact for the dividends policies on the Jordanian industrial companies' market price.

Keywords

dividends policy; cash dividends; stock dividends; stock repurchases; stock market price; Industrial sector; Amman Stock Exchange (ASE)

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Authors

Ying Wang, Scott Butterfield, and Michael Campbell

Accounting Department,

College of Business,

Montana State University-Billings, Billings, MT,

USA E-mail: ywang@msubillings.edu

Abstract

This study uses data collected from CSMAR, the China Center for Economic Research, for the period 2009-2015. We develop a more practical method of measuring earnings management using deferred tax items and compare the new method to the traditional approach. We find that the new method is effective and may be used alone on individual companies or as a complement to other earnings measurement techniques, since the new method focuses on different data.

Keywords

earnings management; deferred taxes

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Authors

Ronny Richardson

Coles College of Business, Kennesaw State University Kennesaw, GA 30144, USA

rricha68@kennesaw.edu

Max North

Information Systems Department Coles College of Business, Kennesaw State University Kennesaw, GA 30144, USA

max@kennesaw.edu

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Authors

Zhiyun Wang and Qi Li

Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy Wuhan University, Wuhan, China Email: zwangpsy@whu.edu.cn

Jianqi Chen

Teachers College of Education, Xiacheng District, Hangzhou, China

Abstract

The article aimed at examining the relationship between work-family conflict and spouse conflict and adolescent school performance, and at investigating the role of spouse conflict as a mediator in the relationship of work-family conflict and adolescent school performance in China. The article uses data from 305 Chinese junior middle school students and their parents. The results showed that parents’ perceptions of their own family-to-work conflict, their own work-to-family conflict, and their partner workto- family conflict all significantly correlated to spouse conflict, and spouse conflict significantly correlated to adolescent conflict with parents, teachers, classmates, and final grades in term examinations. Linear regressions revealed that work-family conflict was significantly associated with spouse conflict; spouse conflict was significantly associated with adolescent conflict; and adolescent conflict was significantly associated with final school grades. Further research should pay more attention to the transmission mechanisms, like spouse conflict, to better understand the impact of work-family conflicts on individual mental health and behaviors.

Keywords

work-family conflict; spouse conflict; school performance; family resilience

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Author

Langdon Morris

Innovationlabs, Leading Innovation Consulting Firms, CA, USA

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Authors

Ronny Richardson, Max North, Mikhail Melnik, and Tajruba Khan

Management and Entrepreneurship Department

Information Systems Department

Economics, Finance, & Quantitative Analysis Department

Coles College of Business, Kennesaw State University, GA, USA

rricha68@kennesaw.edu and max@kennesaw.edu

Abstract

Economic development in Eurasia is dynamic and diverse in nature, characteristics which are a prerequisite to a thriving society, region, and, ultimately, global community. This article provides a brief background on Eurasia’s rich spectrum of economics, describes the major economic powers in the region and their principal initiatives, and offers perspectives on crucial factors for prosperous economic development.

Keywords

Economic development; Eurasia; global economics; economic power

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Authors

J. Bishop

Centre for Research into Online Communities and E-Learning Systems Ty Morgannwg, PO Box 674, Swansea, SA1 9NN UK

Abstract

Coaching and mentoring have many commonalities but can also be seen to be different. The aim of coaching is to help people transform being where they are to where they want to go, which may be on a path that has not yet been trodden. Mentoring is a one-to-one communication between a mentor who has “been there and done that” and a mentee who wants to "learn the ropes." This paper looks at how these practices can be enabled online through Virtual Coaches and the extent and limitations of the GROW model for online coaching and mentoring. It finds that the GROW model is limited in what it can do, and that it needs to be extended to consider factors beyond goals, realities, options, and wills. It is suggested that "engage" and "routinize" be added to create a new model called "GROWER." An extension of the M-MARS model making it M-REAMS (i.e. Methods, Rules, Enmities, Amities, Memes, Strategies) is proposed for an ethnomethodological approach to reflective learning. The paper concludes that virtual coaches can provide benefits in terms of enhanced mentoring and coaching relationships.

Keywords

Human resources; e-mentoring; adaptive hypermedia; AVEUGLE; ethnomethodological approach; virtual coaching;

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Author

Steve Richfield

Founder of Savant AI Holdings, Edgewood, WA, USA

Abstract

VCs have been “picking the low hanging fruit” for decades, but now the “low hanging fruit” is becoming harder to find. As a result, their investments have, on average, been riskier. Their profit model is built on a 10% success rate, which is unstable in a world of shrinking opportunities. VCs must now change the way they do business or gradually disappear into the oblivion of failing investments.

Keywords

CEO; corporate shells; founders stock; funding; just in time development; parallel development; patent attorney; venture capital

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Authors

Ying Wang, Michael Campbell, Debra Johnson

Accounting Department, College of Business, Montana State University-Billings

Billings, MT 59101

E-mail: ywang@msubillings.edu

Abstract

Enterprises are considering substantial investment in Business Intelligence (BI) theories and technologies to maintain their competitive advantages. BI allows massive diverse data collected from virus sources to be transformed into useful information, allowing more effective and efficient production. This paper briefly and broadly explores the business intelligence technology, applications and trends while provides a few stimulating and innovate theories and practices. The authors also explore several contemporary studies related to the future of BI and surrounding fields.

Keywords

Business Intelligence, Competitive Intelligence, Data Warehousing, Data Mining, Cloud Computing, Data Exploration and Visualization

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Authors

Rand Obeidat

Health Information Technology, Department of Information Systems

College of Engineering & Information Technology

University of Maryland-Baltimore County (UMBC)

Abstract

Several studies have concluded that requirement changes are one of the major problems that have an effect on project environments. Furthermore, requirements could not be stabilized, and change is unavoidable and inevitable. As a result, requirement changes should be managed and controlled in a proper way in order to minimize their consequences. Therefore, this paper investigates the main aspects of Managing Requirement Changes (MRC) in the context of Health Informatics (HI) projects based on a conceptual framework and shows the relationship between these aspects after conducting interviews with four IT health professionals.

Keywords

Requirement change; health informatics; MRC; HI;

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Authors

Akazue, M. I

Delta State University, Abraka, Mathematics & Computer Science Department, Delta State, Nigeria

akazuem@gmail.com

Abstract

Hotel management system research has reached its peak with thousands of developed commercial and private software programs, which are available in the market and are currently in use across the world. Despite all the advancements, most hotel management software is far from being perfect in satisfying diverse users' needs in the aspect of multiple reservations with breaks in check-in and check-out. This limitation affects users who desire to check in at a particular period and check out, then later check in again at the same hotel. Analysis of the topmost online hotels showed that multiple reservations are yet to be accommodated by most hotel management software. This research paper, therefore, presents a novel, modified hotel management system architecture that seeks to enhance existing hotel management systems to accommodate breaks in checking in and out within a given timeframe.

Keywords

Enhanced hospitality software; hotel management system; information system; multiple reservation booking

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Authors

Fengying Li

School of Continuous Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

Qingshui Xue, Huajun Zhang, Erdong Deng

Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

Abstract

Community resident learning is the main part of lifelong education. In the times of mobile internet, virtual learning is becoming increasingly important. Currently, there exist several problems in community resident autonomously virtual learning that influence learning quality. In order to solve the problems of community resident virtual learning based on the theories of connectivism, constructivism, humanism, and distributed cognition, we investigated how to increase community resident autonomous virtual learning ability.

Keywords

community resident; virtual learning; autonomous learning

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Author

Langdon Morris

Innovationlabs, Leading Innovation Consulting Firms, CA, USA

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Author

Muhannad Akram Moqbel

Muhannad Akram Moqbel Al al-Bayt University, P.O.BOX 130040, Mafraq 25113, Jordam dr.muhannadahmad@gmail.com

Ashraf Mohammad Al-RjoubAl-Balga Applied University, P.O.Box: Al-Salt 19117 Jordan ashraf_alrjoub@yahoo.com

Ziyad Mustafa M. AL-ShwiyatAl-Balga Applied University, P.O.Box: Al-Salt 19117 Jordan ziyadshw@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study aimed at identifying the degree of applying accounting Information Systems (Accounting System Efficiency, Decreasing production costs and the identification of costs’ deviations) and their effect on the improvement of production costs among Jordanian industrial firms. For the purposes of the present study, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to the participants of the study (n=160) who were chosen from among financial managers and accountants at Jordanian industrial firms. Results of the study showed that industrial firms implement accounting information systems efficiently and effectively and that the most important degree of implementation is that the system seeks to identify the deviations of the production costs to a large degree. Results showed the existence of a positive effect of the adoption and implementation of accounting information systems that are related to the identification of production costs’ deviations, the efficiency of the accounting information systems, and the improvement of the production costs. The capacity of the accounting system in relation to decreasing production costs is the most effective factor in the improvement of production costs among Jordanian industrial firms.

Keywords

Accounting information systems; production cost; shareholding Jordanian industrial firms

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Authors

Esra Ahmed

Esra Ahmed Department of Business Administration, Ahlia University, Bahrain

Allam Hamdan Accounting and Economics Department, Ahlia University, Bahrain

Abstract

Corporate governance is recognized as one of the most important implications in building marketplace confidence and attracting positive investors in the organization specifically and the economy generally. Promoting good corporate governance standards is considered to be very important in attracting investment capital, reducing risk and developing a firm’s performance. The aim of this research was to examine the impact of corporate governance policies on firm performance in Bahrain Bourse. Previous literature reviews presented in the study found that corporate governance is successful in improving firm's performance. The study sample contained 42 out of 48 of Bahrain's companies which were listed in Bahrain Bourse during the period from 2007-2011. The descriptive results indicate that our sample firms fulfill corporate governance variables about 61.2% for the entire study period. The empirical results indicate that performance measures such as return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) are significantly related to corporate governance in Bahrain. However, earnings per share (EPS), as a performance measure, did not show any significant change as a result of corporate governance. Overall, this study found a positive influence of corporate governance mechanisms on performance for the entire list of firms in Bahrain Bourse.

Keywords

Corporate governance, firm performance, Bahrain bourse (BB), return on investment (ROI), return on assets (ROA), earnings per share (EPS)

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Authors

Dana M. Araiqat, Muneer M. S. Almubarak

Dana M. Araiqat, Muneer M. S. Almubarak Ahlia University, Bahrain dana.araiqat@gmail.com malmubarak@ahlia.edu.bh (corresponding author)

Abstract

This paper aims to measure a customer satisfaction level in the architectural engineering industry, and to find out factors that affect clients’ expectations. The paper proposes a model that shows relationships between four main elements required for the project (design, service quality, staff and cost) and customer satisfaction. It also shows that the ability of the firm to meet customers’ needs shapes customers’ expectations. The findings reveal that the design process of the engineering consultancy, and costs of the projects do affect customer satisfaction of the architectural engineering firm. This study is one of few that measures customer satisfaction level in an architectural engineering industry, and in particular in Bahrain.

Keywords

Architectural engineering industry, Arab architects, customer satisfaction, design, service quality, staff, cost

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Authors

Muhammad Obeidat, Max North, Ronny Richardson, and Vebol RattanakManagement and Entrepreneurship Department Information Systems Department Coles College of Business Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144, USA Max@kennesaw.edu

Sarah NorthComputer Science Department College of Computing and Software Engineering Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144, USA

Abstract

Enterprises are considering substantial investment in Business Intelligence (BI) theories and technologies to maintain their competitive advantages. BI allows massive diverse data collected from virus sources to be transformed into useful information, allowing more effective and efficient production. This paper briefly and broadly explores the business intelligence technology, applications and trends while provides a few stimulating and innovate theories and practices. The authors also explore several contemporary studies related to the future of BI and surrounding fields.

Keywords

Business Intelligence, Competitive Intelligence, Data Warehousing, Data Mining, Cloud Computing, Data Exploration and Visualization

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Authors

Yalin Chen and Liang Zhang School of Management Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing, China, 210046

Abstract

This study provides insights into online impulse buying behavior by exploring clear endogenesis relationships among factors that influence such a behavior. Drawing upon cognitive emotion theory and the existing literature, we develop a theoretical model that shows how personal impulse character, stimuli, psychosocial factors, and perceived risks are related to internal emotion and online impulse buying behavior. The influential path model is tested and modified on the basis of survey data obtained from 246 valid questionnaires. Data are analyzed with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to determine and confirm the identified factors. Structural equation modeling indicates the significant effects of the factors, as well as their indirect effects. Results aim to enhance our understanding of impulse online buying and improve online store operations from a management perspective.

Keywords

online impulse buying; cognitive emotion theory; non-rational decision-making model; influential factor

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Authors

Maureen Akazue and Aghaulor Augusta Mathematics and Computer Science Department, Delta State University Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria akazuem@gmail.com

Abstract

Electronic commerce is the application of information and communications technology from the point of customer’s login to the point of customer’s receiving the goods along electronically with manually processing system. The Internet potential for electronic commerce was expected to boom with the spread of the Internet but, the lack of consumer confidence in electronic payments as regards security of payment mechanisms explained the slow growth of online purchase. Thus, in this paper, a centralized merchant registration retrieval (CMRR) component of e-commerce model is used to serve as an advisory tool that identify cloned payment page in e-commerce transaction. An online evaluation of the use of CMRR in identifying cloned payment page and acting as an advisory to customer were carried out through the use of questionnaire. Data analysis of generated questionnaire showed that CMRR can enhance customer’s confidence and trust in the purchase of online goods and services via identifying cloned payment page.

Keywords

Cloned payment page, Central Merchant Registration Retrieval, Advisory tool, customer’s trust, Electronic commerce

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Authors

Ryan Steele and Larbi Esmahi School of Computing and Information systems, Athabasca University, Athabasca, Alberta, Canada

Larbi Esmahi Faculty of Science and Technology, Athabasca University, Athabasca, Alberta, Canada

Abstract

The objective of technical trading is to identify profitable conditions for the entry and exit of market positions. The future investment horizon is unknown at the beginning of a trade, but it is shorter than a traditional passive investment strategy. To trade technically is to predefine the conditions for both the entrance and exit of a market position. With predefined conditions that denote the beginning and end of a market position, the market for a security can be viewed as series of positions or “Events”. Associated with a market Event is a set of market conditions that cause the equilibrium of a security’s price to change. These market conditions can be quantified with the use of technical indicators that can be used as predictors of a market event outcome. In this paper we are using three common momentum indicators to classify the outcome (return) of a position defined by trading signals of a Simple Moving Average system. We are grouping the collection of positions associated with each selected security into outcome classifications in order to form an Analysis of Variance model. When the observed values of a momentum technical indicator vary with position outcome, it suggests that the indicator has a minimal level of predictive power that could be used for estimating the return of future positions defined by a Simple Moving Average trading system. The ensemble classification models will use a diverse set of technical indicators that measure various aspects of market sentiment at the time of entry signal as input features. This research intends to demonstrate that various ensemble classification models differ in their ability to classify the nonlinear relationships of market behavior and are anticipated to perform better than random chance. The outcome of this research may also provide indirect evidence that ensemble models can be applied to other markets such as commodities or more broadly to other complex non-linear problems.

Keywords

Predictive modeling, technical analysis, technical trading, classification predictors, machine learning

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Author

Hodaka Nakanishi Technology Transfer Center, Teikyo University, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan nakanishi@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Although telework is expected as an effective tool for energy saving, the effect of telework on the energy consumption depends on the usage of the equipment. There are two opposite possibilities of the effect of telework because energy consumption increases at home while energy consumption decreases in the office by telework. In order to evaluate the effect of telework, the energy consumption model of telework was proposed. In the model, the energy saving effect is estimated according to the type of equipment. Type A equipment is used by each teleworker in the workplace independently. Personal computers and the desk lamps are the Type A equipment. Type B equipment is shared and used by several persons including teleworkers and their family members at home. Air-conditioners, ceiling lights and computer servers are the Type B equipment. As for Type A equipment, the effect of telework is decided by the energy efficiency of appliances. As for Type B equipment, the effect of telework on energy is affected by the number of people who share the equipment. There are 4 cases of using Type B equipment. These cases are determined by the office space reduction and the number of people at home. In order to evaluate the effect of telework, it is necessary to know the usage of equipment at home such as the number of people who share the equipment in the workplace. A survey was conducted to know the sharing situation of the equipment. According to the survey, 64% of teleworkers work alone in the workplace at home and use the energy. The energy consumption at home may increase by 73-85% of the energy decrease attained by the office closure. It was clarified that following conditions are the keys to the energy-saving by homebased telework: 1) the equipment with high energy efficiency should be used at home, 2) the large scale telework with office closure or office space reduction should be introduced, and 3) high energy consuming equipment such as air-conditioner should be shared with family members at home.

Keywords

Telework, energy consumption, equipment, energy efficiency, energy saving effect

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Author

Dr. Alaka N. Rao

Dr. Alaka N. Rao is an Assistant Professor in the School of Global Innovation and Leadership in the College of Business, San Jose State University. Dr. Rao received her Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior from the Graduate School of Management at the University of California, Irvine and her Bachelor Degree in Economics from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Rao’s research centers on the management of complex collaborations across geographical and cultural divides. Her current research focuses on how local and global pressures influence the performance of global outsourcing teams. This research examines the critical role of national culture, employee cognition, and trust in the management of global collaborations. Dr. Rao has also conducted research on how managers exchange and build trust in countries lacking institutional support. Her work has been published in management journals, such as the Journal of International Business Studies.

Abstract

In this study, the concepts of trust and risk are examined in relation to the performance of global outsourcing teams. First, competing arguments of the relationship between trust and performance are presented, followed by an examination of the impact of risk and uncertainty in the global task environment on the trust-performance relationship. Project risk, technical complexity, and project dynamism are argued to moderate the relationship between team trust and performance. To test these arguments, data were collected from a sample of global outsourcing teams spanning emerging economies and developed countries. Results support project risk as a critical moderator of the relationship between trust and performance, such that trust was positively related to performance when the project was highly risky. For low risk projects, trust was negatively related to team performance. These findings allude to a far more complex relationship between risk and trust than previous research has empirically considered. Results of this study provide insight into the advantages and limitations of trust in global teams, and underscore the need to move beyond a focus on the direct link between trust and performance in seeking to understand the conditions, such as risk and uncertainty under which trust promotes or inhibits performance, suggesting the complicated and contingent role of trust in global collaborations. Findings contribute to a practical understanding of under what conditions of environmental risk and uncertainty should managers build trust within teams to foster performance of global collaborations.

Keywords

trust, risk, global teams

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Authors

Cau Ngoc Nguyen

Cau Ngoc Nguyen is a second year Ph.D. student at Texas A&M International University. He received his Bachelor’s in Accounting and his MBA from the University of Houston-Clear Lake. As a Ph.D. student in International Business with a concentration in Management, his research interests are organizational behavior and human resource management with an emphasis in leadership, leader-member exchange and organizational politics. He has been published in the International Journal of Business and Social Science and has presented at the Decision Sciences Institute (DSI) Annual Conference. He has been a member of the Accounting Association and the National Society of Leadership and Success. He can be reached at caunguyen@dusty.tamiu.edu.

Renee Oyotode is a second year Ph.D. student at Texas A&M International University. She received her Bachelor’s degree with honors in Business Management from Felix Houphouet Boigny University, Ivory Coast. She also holds a Master of Business Administration with concentration in Finance and International Business from the University of New Orleans. Presently, she is pursuing a Ph.D. in International Business concentration Finance. Renee’s research interest at Texas A&M International University includes financial market development in Africa, Stock market anomalies and Brand equity. She has been a member of the Financial Management Association and American Finance Association. You can reach her at reneeoyotode@dusty.tamiu.edu.

Abstract

In recent years, firms have been pressured by stakeholders to undertake additional corporate social responsibility investments. Some firms have taken the initiative to allocate additional resources to CSR investments, while others argue that these investments conflicts with the firms’ objectives to maximize profits. This controversy has piqued researchers’ interests as they explore and study the linkage and relationship between CSR and firm performance. As such, we seek to contribute to this literature by studying the sensitivity of changes in CSR perceptions on brand equity, a noted measure of firm performance. We also take the resource-based view perspective to introduce marketing capabilities as a possible moderator for the CSR-brand equity relationship. Using data from 134 firms, we run a structured equation model (SEM) path analysis and find a positive relationship between changes in CSR perceptions and brand equity, significant at the 5% level. We also find that not only is there a positive and significant (p< .01) link between the marketing capabilities and brand equity, but also that marketing capabilities positively and significantly (p< .05) moderate the changes in CSR-brand equity relationship. With our significant results, we provide actionable information for managers and decision makers, as well as make theoretical contributions to literature.

Keywords

corporate social responsibility, brand equity, resource-based view, marketing capabilities, structured equation model

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Author

Dr. Nizar El Ouni

Dr. Nizar El Ouni is a Faculty of economics and Management of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia who can be reached at nizar.elouni@gmail.com

Abstract

We study according to the work of Statman, Thorley and Vorkink (2004), Glaser and Weber (2004) and Chuang and Lee (2006), the dynamic relationship between the overconfidence of investors and the volume of transactions. This study aims to show, first, that overconfidence is a systematic cognitive bias most investors suffer from and the effect of which can affect the efficiency of financial markets. We test this hypothesis for a sample of 35 Tunisian companies over a period of 2000 to 2010 according to frequency (daily, weekly, and monthly) using a range of econometric tests or tests of Granger causality. Then we applied vector autoregression VAR modeling and impulse response functions associated. We prove the presence of excess confidence in the Tunisian market through a significant relationship Granger returns to the current market volume of transactions. In addition, we can test the hypothesis that overconfidence encourages the volume of transactions. Because these results support the hypothesis of the disposition effect, we argue our study distinguishes the overconfidence of this bias. Following the positive and significant relationship between past market returns and individual trading volume in individual past performance, we can validate the overconfidence hypothesis and distinguish it from the effect of this provision, which allows us to conclude that the exchange market activity is not a simple summation of disposition effecting individual securities.

Keywords

behavioral finance, over-confidence, excessive volatility, VAR market, VAR individual securities, causality, functions pulse responses

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Authors

Dr. Seif Obeid ALshbiel is a Faculty of Finance and Business Administration, AL Al-Bayt University, Jordan, who can be reached at seif198272@yahoo.com

Dr. Yasean Tahat is a faculty of Accounting and MIS Department, Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait, who can be reached at ytahat@yahoo.com

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to examine the corporate usage of derivatives for Jordanian companies. Employing a survey questionnaire, the general findings indicate that 60% of the sample firm use derivatives in their operations to primarily hedge against future transactions. In addition, the study pointed out that large companies tend to use such instruments more than their small counterpart. For time and sourcing issues, the current study investigates the usage of derivatives for both services and manufacturing companies listed in the first market of the Jordanian capital market. Hence, future research needs to re-examine the same issue using different sectors and covering companies listed in the second market.

Keywords

financial derivatives, equity securities, risk management, capital market, Jordan

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Authors

Dr. Mahdi Salehi is a Assistant Professor of Accounting, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, who can be reached at mehdi.salehi@um.ac.ir

Dr. Maryam Seifzadeh is a faculty of Department of Management, Economics and Accounting, Payame Noor University, Iran

Abstract

The present study investigates analytically the relation between changes of balance sheet items and stock future output of listed companies in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Since these informative sources, which are available for investors and creditors and financial analysts, are fiscal lists of companies and, in principle, one of the main instruments as a final output of the accounting process and financial reporting, so the research aims to predict the stock output changes by investigating the balance sheet items. Along with the subject, six hypotheses are postulated, and the kind of research method is correlated during 2009-2014. The results show that changes of fixed assets and also shareholders emolument have influence on the future exchange output. Nevertheless, the determination coefficients in the following model were low. This reveals that independent coefficients in the model have a weak relation with the future exchange output. Consequently, there is a meaningful relationship between balance sheets and listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange.

Keywords

Exchange output, net operational assets, debts, Tehran Stock Exchange

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Author

Eric Gagnon

Abstract

In previous issues of this journal, we described the importance of developing factual, non-promotional “content” in the “post-marketing” era for business-to-business marketing programs, and covered in detail the process of developing effective content used as the basis for creating marketing programs that generate measurable sales response, especially when tied to online marketing programs.

Keywords

content-based marketing, B2B advertising,post-marketing

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Authors

Langdon Morris is Senior Partner of InnovationLabs, recognized as one of the leading innovation consulting firms worldwide. He is also a Senior Editor of The International Journal of Innovation Science and a Board Member of the International Association of Innovation Professionals. He is author of “The Innovation Master Plan” and “Permanent Innovation,” and co-author of “Fourth Generation R&D: Managing Knowledge, Technology, and Innovation”, Wiley, 1999. This work is now judged to be a classic in the field, the defining statement about the management of R&D for breakthrough innovation. He is also author of two other books: “Managing the Evolving Corporation”, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995 and "The Knowledge Channel: Corporate Strategies for the Internet", iUniverse, 1998. His writings appear regularly in many periodicals worldwide.He speaks frequently at industry gatherings and company meetings worldwide. He has taught Business Strategy at the graduate level at the Universidad de Belgrano, Buenos Aires, and the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris.

Moses Ma is a Technology Innovator and Partner at NextGEN Ventures, an advanced technology venture incubator working on leading edge cloud, mobile, and web technologies. Featured in Time Magazine, the New York Times and other publications, his professional life has spanned academia, science, technology, philosophy and business. He has been involved in the forefront of many technologies: as a games designer he created SpectreVR, which invented the category of networked games; he co-developed with IBM the first specification for universal identity on the Internet; he invented the concept of eMarkets and helped to establish the foundational guidelines for the semantic Web. He has served for the CommerceNet thinktank, the Idea Factory, and Nokia Innovent. NextGEN also operates a selective strategic consulting practice that works with Fortune 500 companies like Wells Fargo, Nokia, and Mitsubishi. He has also produced a number of conferences, such as The Cameraphone Summit, which kicked off the mobile imaging industry, and The B2B Big Bang global conference. He is a graduate of Caltech.

Dr. Po Chi Wu is Vice Chairman of Invotech Hong Kong, a catalyst for change, and Adjunct Professor at the Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, where he teaches innovation and entrepreneurship to new generations of Asian business leaders. This comes after 30 years as a successful early-stage venture capitalist and entrepreneur in Silicon Valley. His initiative, “Smart Hong Kong”, intends to inspire and motivate entrepreneurs to focus on creating practical solutions that will make Hong Kong “smarter”, more responsive to its citizens, so people can be healthier, happier, and more productive.

Abstract

Innovation, collaboration, and improvisation are indeed essential forces shaping all of business and all of modern life, and they’ve become vitally important for the individual, the organization, and, indeed, for all of society. The significance and importance of all three and their close cousin, adaptation, leads us to some essential questions:

  1. How well are you and your company prevailing in the current environment of accelerating change?
  2. How well positioned are you and your company to benefit from the countless new opportunities that change is bringing?
  3. Does your organization have a rigorous innovation process?
  4. Are you sufficiently agile to survive and to succeed?

Keywords

agile innovation,inspire engagement,ignite creativity

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Authors

Dr. Wagner Padua Filho is an experienced consultant in the areas of marketing, business strategy, and entrepreneurship. He has worked as a consultant for many different companies in a wide variety of industries, and currently serves as a specialist in the health management sector. Dr. Filho started his education as a medical doctor, but diversified to the business world after his MBA. He obtained his MBA from Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV), and his Ph.D from University of São Paulo, Brazil. Dr. Filho completed his Post-Doctoral studies from University of Florida in the USA. He is also serving as a professor of Marketing, Entrepreneurship and Innovation at FGV and as a professor of Health Management at Ipatinga School of Medicine in Brazil. Previously, Dr. Filho also serves as CEO and Owner CRW Education; a business company specialized in training and developing educational projects in business management, marketing, entrepreneurship and innovation. His research Interests include marketing management with focus on health services, innovation and entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Brazil has become a globalized economy with development and professionalization of its business and market. Many sectors have attracted the interest of firms, competitors, and investors. One such sector consists of the hospitals in Brazil, which are facing challenges in improving efficiency and competitiveness. One of the strategies adopted by organizations in pursuit of growth is making mergers and acquisitions (M & A). This paper analyzes the M & A strategy focusing on Brazilian hospitals, describes the objectives, delineates the steps of the process, and lists its advantages and benefits. This paper also discusses obstacles, risks, and causes of success and failure.

Keywords

merger and acquisition; hospital; health management; strategy

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Author

Dr. Abhiruchi Singh Verma holds an MBA degree in human resource & marketing management, and a Ph.D. in management. She has 10 year experience working in academics, research and industry. Her research interests include emotional intelligence, sustainable marketing, strategic human resource management, and crisis management. She has published research papers in numerous national and international journal of repute. Presently she is working as associate professor with a premier management institute at New Delhi, India, also serving as part of editorial board for the institute’s biannual journal.

Abstract

Modern globalized world is moving towards greater environmental concern and awareness. The anti - environmental policies followed in the early stages of industrialization are no longer a viable option. It is becoming imperative that environment and industrialization must go hand in hand to achieve sustainable development. Nowadays organizations’ sole aim no longer can be just improvement of its performance but its policies must be environment friendly as well. Hence, the notion of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) has received increasing attention and acceptance from various quarters. As the public becomes more aware of environmental issues and the need to prevent global warming, consumers do ask questions about environmental impact of the products they are purchasing. Companies should anticipate questions being raised about how green their manufacturing processes and supply chains are, their carbon footprint and how they recycle. Further organizations need to be responsive towards the demands of various stakeholders of the society and need to install systems and processes which maximize environment conservation and minimize negative environmental impact of these processes. The objective of this paper is to present conceptual clarity about GSCM as well as highlighting various efforts taken by Indian hospitality industry to green their supply chain. The paper adopts case study approach based on the conceptual framework green supply chain management as proposed by Hervani, Helms, and Sarkis, (2005), i. e. green procurement, green design, green manufacturing, green operations and reverse logistics and waste management.

Keywords

Green supply chain management, Indian hospitality industry, green procurement, green design, green manufacturing, green operations, reverse logistics, waste management

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Authors

Dr. Kazi Nazmul Huda is an assistant professor at the Southern University Bangladesh, 739/A Mehedibag Road Chittagong, Bangladesh; knhuda@yahoo.com

Dr. Tahmina Rita Anika is a lecturer of the Department of Management Studies at Jagannath University, Dhaka.

Dr. Moslehuddin Chowdhury Khaled is an assistant professor at the School of Business in Chittagong Independent University, Bangladesh. He teaches strategic management, business communication, human resource management, personnel training and development, leadership and conflict management, industrial law and public relations. His research interests include the areas of strategic management, human resource, organizational behavior, and change management. He can be reached at moslehuddin.khaled@ciu.edu.bd

Abstract

In modern Human Resource Management (HRM), the concept of "Strategic Human Resource Development" (SHRD) is a relatively new concept. The idea of SHRD is built upon the increasing importance of HR as an essential value-creating component of organization and needs to be studied in details. The central objective is to study empirically the status and scope of SHRD. The investigative objective of this paper is to do it for a manufacturing sector, and here the sub sector is Steel Rerolling. In this article, first the concept of SHRD is elaborated with the help of an extensive literature review. The study tries to identify the current scenario of SHRD practices in the branded steel mills of Bangladesh by studying the opinions from 62 workers of 6 different steel industries. This was supplemented with interviews of HR executives from 3 different companies. The key discovery of the study is an absence of interactive relationship between workers and management that is quite evident, and the workplace environment is not compliant with required standards to be considered as practicing SHRD. The need and scope to modernize the HR practices along the lines of SHRD concepts and ideas are recommended in detail. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing SHRD principles and practices. A paper like this one will help discuss and debate cultural and conceptual changes, which are much needed in these sectors.

Keywords

strategic human resource development; strategic human resource development systems

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Authors

Dr. Khaldoun I. Ababneh is an associate professor of management at the American University in Dubai (UAE). His research interests include personnel selection, applicant reactions, attribution theory, turnover, and performance management. Dr. Ababneh is also a corresponding author and can be contacted at: kababneh@aud.edu

Dr. Nita Chhinzer is an associate professor in the Department of Management at the University of Guelph (Canada). Her research is concentrated on strategic human resources management, with a strong focus on downsizing practices, procedures and ethics. Her program of research includes securing a stronger understanding of downsizing activity in the Canadian context, with an aim to affect public policy and legislation regarding layoffs.

Abstract

This paper examines the bases of the job application process in terms of the favorability/fairness perceptions of 12 personnel selection methods and the consequences of these perceptions on organizational attractiveness and application, recommendation, and litigation intentions. Our paper reveals that face validity, widespread use of selection methods, the employer’s right to obtain information, and the opportunity to perform are the strongest predictors of favorability perceptions, while interpersonal warmth, predictive validity, and respect for privacy are the weakest predictors of favorability perceptions. Additionally, procedural justice dimensions and favorability perceptions correlate with organizational attractiveness and application, recommendation, and litigation intentions. This study expands previous research on job applicants' perceptions of the selection methods to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the Middle East. Furthermore, this research examines both the antecedents and the consequences of applicants' fairness perceptions of 12 selection methods within the same study.

Keywords

selection methods; fairness; procedural justice; applicant intentions; job search; United Arab Emirates (UAE)

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Authors

Dr. Ram Kesavan is a professor of marketing of University of Detroit Mercy, MI, USA. He teaches in the areas of marketing/entrepreneurship. He has counseled over 300 small businesses, mostly minority owned. He has authored over 50 articles and a manuscript on international strategic marketing. Some of his work has been published in the Journal of Consumer Research and the Journal of Academy of Marketing Science. He has served as the Sam Walton Free Enterprise Fellow. He is the treasurer of the Marketing Management Association. Dr. Kesavan earned his Ph.D. from the University of Rochester, USA.

Abstract

Recently, we have witnessed the phenomenal success of e-commerce giants, such as Amazon.com and ebay.com. This paper investigates the sustainability of a new e-commerce format called the penny auctions. They have become the basis for a number of internet startup companies. In this paper we report on the penny auction industry from an entrepreneurial perspective. In particular, we analyze QuiBids.com, a fast-growing penny auction company. We are most concerned about the “infant mortality syndrome” affecting this new industry. We develop hypotheses based on our case study to enable the penny auction industry to survive in the short term and grow in the long term.

Keywords

sustainability; e-commerce; penny auctions

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Authors

Dr. Yohan Bernard is an associate professor at the University of Franche-Comté, France. He holds a Ph.D in marketing from the University of Paris II, France. His research interests deal mainly with consumer behavior and international marketing. He can reached at yohan.bernard@univ-fcomte.fr
Dr. Sarra Zarrouk-Karoui is an Associate Professor at the University of Bourgogne, France. She holds a PhD in marketing from the University of Paris II, France. Her research interests deal mainly with consumer behavior.

Abstract

In a tense economic environment where consumers are encouraged to favor local rather than imported products, multinational companies (MNEs) need leverage to enhance their offer regarding local products. This research suggests a consideration of consumer affinity towards a foreign country as a means to reinforce both willingness to buy (WTB) and willingness to pay (WTP). An experiment was conducted with 170 French consumers (non-students). Respondents were asked about their WTB and their WTP for products for which the country of origin varied in a within-subject design based on 1) the level of the respondent's sense of affinity towards the product’s country of origin and 2) the image of the country of origin for the product category in question. In addition, the sources of affinity feeling to a foreign country were explored. Results indicate that consumer affinity towards a foreign country has a positive effect on consumer WTB and WTP. This effect is complementary to the well- known country of origin effect. Three main factors influence consumer affinity toward a foreign country in a positive manner: a consumer’s 1) personal experience with the country (to have visited it, to have friends there, etc.), 2) a positive evaluation of its natural landscapes, and 3) an appreciation of its culture (history, values, etc.) Implications for MNEs are detailed to inspire their marketing strategy.

Keywords

consumer affinity, international marketing, country-image, willingness to pay

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Author

Eric Gagnon serves as the director of the Business Marketing Institute (BMI), and is the developer of BMI's marketing skills training courseware, training, and certification programs. Mr. Gagnon also serves as marketing and technology development consultant to a wide range of companies, from start-ups to global corporations. Mr. Gagnon holds two U.S. patents for Internet-related systems, and is also the author of two books on marketing, The Marketing Manager's Handbook, and the CRM Field Marketing Handbook.

Abstract

In a previous article in this journal, we described the end of B2B marketing as we know it, the ways prospects will access information on products and applications in the post-marketing era, and the critical role played by content in this new environment.

Keywords

B2B Brand Marketing, content-based marketing

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Authors

Dr. Kevin S. Bottomley is a faculty member in the School of Advanced Studies at the University of Phoenix teaching doctoral-level research courses and mentoring doctoral candidates on their dissertation. Dr. Bottomley earned his Ph.D. in Leadership Studies from North Carolina ATT State University.

Dr. Sylvia Willie Burgess is an Adjunct Assistant Professor at North Carolina ATT State University in the Leadership Studies Program where she also serves as the PhD Program Coordinator.She is a Senior
Consultant at One Step A Time Consulting where her focus is on leadership training, community engagement training, curriculum development, cultural diversity and cultural competency training,
strategic planning, organizational capacity building and event facilitation. She earned a Ph.D. in Leadership Studies from North Carolina A&T State University.

Moxes Fox, III; M.S. is a doctoral candidate at North Carolina A&T State University in the Leadership Studies department. He received his Master degree in Organizational Change and Leadership from
Pfieffer University.  Mr. Fox currently serves Partnership Coordinator for Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual framework of the behaviors needed to be an effective leader. The authors provide an interdisciplinary model for leader effectiveness and to classify four essential behaviors needed to identify transformational leaders as: 1) a vision-builder; 2) a standard-bearer; 3) an integrator; and 4) a developer. According to leadership pioneers such as Peter Drucker, John McCall, Luther Gulick and others, these behaviors are vital for effective leadership within any industry. As a result, this study identifies basic behaviors essential to effective leaders and connects them to a conceptual model of transformational leadership.

Keywords

behaviors; transformation leadership; organization

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Authors

Michael C. Campbell, M.S., CPA is a professor of accounting at Montana State University-Billings in Billings, Montana. His background includes experience as an auditor for a Big-4 CPA firm, and as an accountant or controller for a national manufacturing company, a large not-for-profit organization and a real estate development company, as well as, over 15 years’ experience as a consultant specializing in accounting systems implementation. He has taught various accounting courses at several universities for over 30 years. His major research interest is financial accounting and accounting information system. He can be reached at mcampbell@msubillings.edu

Dr. Ying Wang, DBA, CPA is an assistant professor of accounting at Montana State University-Billings in Billings, Montana. She has taught various courses for about 3 years. Her major research interest is financial accounting and reporting. She can be reached ywang@msubillings.edu

Abstract

This research studied cash effective income tax rate (cash ETR), GAAP effective income tax rate (GAAP ETR), and sales tax and addition effective tax rate (STA ETR) for China publicly listed companies. The data is from 2007-2011. The mean for cash ETR, GAAP ETR, and STA ETR are 23.07%, 19.98%, and 5.29%, respectively. We do not document any influence of the big four auditors on ETRs in all categories. We also do not document any influence of international ownership on ETRs in all categories. Industry, asset mix, leverage, size, and state ownership are factors that affect ETRs.

Keywords

Tax rate; listed company

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Author

Dr. Ram Kesavan is Professor of Marketing, University of Detroit, Mercy, Michigan, USA. Professor Kesavan teaches marketing and entrepreneurship. He has counseled over 300 small businesses, mostly minority owned. He has authored over 50 articles and a manuscript on international strategic marketing. Some of his work has been published in the Journal of Consumer Research and the Journal of Academy of Marketing Science. He has served as the Sam Walton Free Enterprise Fellow. He is the treasurer of the Marketing Management Association. Dr. Kesavan has a Ph.D. from the University of Rochester, New York, USA. He joined the university in 1980.

Abstract

This paper is primarily a case study of how post-Mao China reduced the poverty rates among its people. We believe that the main architect behind the efforts of poverty reduction is Deng Xiaoping who lead China towards market economy after Mao passed away. Deng had a different vision for China. He envisioned a society where business competition and communism coexisted. Post-Deng China, now, has a poverty level of 20 percent as compared to the 60 percent during Mao’s time. Ironically, the Gini Income Inequality Coefficient for China was low under Mao (everyone was equally poor) as compared to the current Gini Coefficient which is as high as the U.S. China’s economic revival is truly a “miracle” since it achieved significant poverty reduction while creating a huge middle class at the same time. India has created a middle class of 100 million people, though its poverty rate is still high (still at 40%). We try to explain this phenomenon in this paper.

Keywords

Deng Xiaoping; poverty reduction; foreign (FDI); entrepreneurialism

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Author

Art Trejo works in the Aerospace sector, more specifically, in the Airline industry where he has contact with almost all airlines around the world, developing and installing in-flight entertainment and communications systems on board the aircraft. Dr. Trejo has worked in the Information Management and Technology field for over 30 years working for a major Information Technology company with a focus on computing research from the perspective of optimal performance. Assigned to work in several countries around the world, his program and projects have given him the opportunity to travel internationally.

Abstract

The present quantitative correlational research study explored relationships between Emotional Intelligence (EI) competencies, such as self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management, and project management outcomes: scope creep, in-budget project cost, and project timeliness. The study was conducted within the context of high technology projects of Hispanic professionals in the United States, as the research study environment. The purpose of the research study was to identify the relationships between the four EI predictor variables and the three project outcomes criterion variables, measuring their strength and direction. Statistical tests were conducted to determine if any of the relationships could support the notion of applying EI could improve the execution of high tech projects by using EI skills to help predict project outcomes. The sample population consisted of 88 Hispanic participants responding to an online survey instrument. Statistical correlational analysis of the collected data indicated the existence of some positive relationships between the identified EI skills and project outcomes existed. The research study conclusions should help understand the benefits of EI in the workplace from the perspective of the Hispanic population and the positive generalization of the study results to other ethnic groups.

Keywords

emotional intelligence; project outcomes; EI competencies; quantitative; project scope; project budget; management; self-management; relationship management; Hispanics

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Authors

Abdelrafe Elzamly is currently studying a Ph. D. in Software and Information Systems Engineering from Faculty of Information and Communication Technology at Technical University Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Born in November 30, 1976, Gaza, Palestine. He received his B.Sc. degree computer in 1999 from Al-Aqsa University, Gaza, and his Master's degree computer information system in 2006 from The University of Banking and Financial Sciences. He is working as lecturer in Computer Science at Al-Aqsa University from 1999 to 2013 as a full time and worked as lecturer at the Islamic University in Gaza from 1999 to 2007 as a part time. He also worked as a manager in The Mustafa Center for Studies and Scientific Research -Gaza from 2010 to 2012. His research of interest is software risk management, software engineering, and data mining.

Dr.Burairah Hussin got a Ph. D. in Management Science – Condition Monitoring Modelling from University of Salford, UK in 2007. He received his M.Sc. Degree in Numerical Analysis and Programming from University of Dundee,UK in 1998. He received his B.Sc. Degree in Computer Science from University Technology Malaysia in 1996. He is currently working as associate professor in University Technical Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) and he worked as Research Manager at Centre for Advanced Computing Technology (C-ACT),Faculty of Information and Communication Technology at Technical University of Malaysia Malacca (UTeM). His research interests are in data analysis, data mining, maintenance modelling, artificial intelligent, risk management, numerical analysis, and computer network advisor and development.

Abstract

This paper aims to present new techniques to determine if fuzzy and stepwise regression are effective in mitigating the occurrence software risk factor in the implementation phase. The proposed process compares the accuracy of prediction between stepwise multiple regression analysis techniques and fuzzy multiple regression. In addition, After applying MRE, the results show that the most value of MMRE in fuzzy multiple regression modelling for risks were slightly higher than the value of MMRE in stepwise multiple regression except risk 1 models around about fuzzy regression. Therefore, the most value of Pred (25) fuzzy multiple regression model for risks were slightly higher than or equal the value of pride (25) stepwise multiple regression except 9 were slightly higher than stepwise. The model’s accuracy slightly improves in fuzzy multiple regression than stepwise multiple regression. Successful application of software project risk management will greatly improve the probability of project success.

Keywords

software project management; software risk management; implementation phase; software risk factors; risk management techniques; stepwise multiple regression analysis techniques, fuzzy multiple regression analysis techniques; evaluating techniques

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Authors

Dr. Muhammad A. Obeidat is a Professor of Operations and Technology Management. His research and teaching interests are in the areas of operations management, management science, information systems, statistics, management of technology, quality management and control, and project management. His research has been published in several journals, including International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics,and Journal of Business Administration. He has worked and consulted with several automobile vendor companies on productivity and process design and layout. Dr. Obeidat is a member of the Decision Sciences Institute, and Production; Operations Management Society.

Dr. Max North is a tenured Professor of Management Information Systems in the Business Administration Department. He has been teaching, conducting research and providing community service for Computer Science and Information Systems departments at higher education institutions for more than twenty years. He holds an associate degree in Accounting, a bachelor's degree in Economic Management, a master's degree in Computer Science with a concentration in Management Information Systems and a Ph.D. in Psychology with concentration in Cognitive and Behavior Sciences. Dr. North has been successfully involved in the research of Human-Computer Interaction/Interface; Information Security and Ethics Awareness; and Virtual Reality Technology. Dr. North is the director of Visualization and Simulation Research Center. Additionally, Dr. North has several published books, book chapters, and a number of technical referred scholarly articles. He has served as principal/co-principal investigator on a number of research grants sponsored by the Boeing Company, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, the National Science Foundation, and the National Security Agency. Dr. North's major contribution to the scientific community is his discovery and continuous research activities in the innovative area of virtual reality technology, which has received international attention and coverage in the scientific community and popular media.

Abstract

Both private and public sector organizations tend to recognize the prominence of information technology within project management techniques and practices. The primary objective of this paper is to present a comparative review of information technology within project management in private and public sectors. Moreover, this research provides an extensive review of related topics such as the evolution of information technology, factors contributing to project abandonment, and the tools and techniques of management that effect project success. In conclusion, the authors present a variety of practical and effective guidelines and recommend approaches for the successful deployment of information technology within project management for both private and public sectors.

Keywords

information technology; project management; private and public sector organizations

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Authors

Mr. Eric Gagnon is a Director of the Business Marketing Institute (BMI), and developer of BMI's marketing skills training courseware, training, and certification programs. Mr. Gagnon, a marketing and technology development consultant to a wide range of companies, from start-ups to global corporations, is the author of two books on marketing, The Marketing Manager's Handbook, and the CRM Field Marketing Handbook, and holds two U.S. patents for Internet-related systems.

Abstract

Keywords

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Author

Langdon Morris is recognized as one the world’s leading thinkers and consultants on innovation. His original and ground-breaking work has been adopted by corporations and universities on every continent to help them improve their innovation processes and the results they achieve. He is a senior partner and co-founder of InnovationLabs (www.innovationlabs.com), where his work focuses on advanced methods in innovation and strategy to solve complex problems with very high levels of creativity and innovation. His breakthrough white paper, Business Model Warfare is a landmark in the field, and is used as a standard reference at universities and corporations worldwide. His book Fourth Generation R&D, coauthored with William L. Miller, is considered a classic in the field of R&D management, and his more recent Permanent Innovation is recognized as one of the leading innovation books of the last five years.

Abstract

Every business has some forms of competitive advantage, such as size, location, product mix, technology, customer relationships, or many others. However, no matter what advantages a business has today, sooner or later changes in the marketplace cause every competitive advantage to degrade. When this happens, yesterday's advantage may mean nothing. In the face of this problem, there is one critical response: innovation. Innovation enables existing advantages to be maintained and new advantages to be created. In fact, innovation is the only source of sustainable competitive advantage because only through innovation do companies adapt. So, you must ask yourself, How can you make your company an innovator? When you think about innovation, you must first distinguish between two types: continuous and discontinuous. Both are important, but they are managed differently and have fundamentally different objectives. Continuous innovations enable you to keep up with your competitors; successful discontinuous innovations put you into the lead. Managing R and D for continuous and discontinuous innovation is a difficult process, and few companies do it well. Marketable innovations are tremendously elusive. As it turns out, however, there is a right place to look for innovation, but it's a place in which most people don't look. That unique place, that hidden place, that special place, is in front of you each and every day. It is your customers. Your customers know how they want your products and services to be better, and you need to ask them. Whether it is through surveys, face-to-face discussions or just walking through your store and talking to customers, they will probably be able to tell you a lot that you don't already know. To understand the scope for innovation, we put together a table of 32 possible innovation targets that the R&D process can focus on. However, even beyond these 32 targets of continuous and discontinuous innovation, there is also a third innovation dimension, one that we are now beginning to understand. While the 32 innovation targets stand separately, they also, fundamentally, distort your view because by looking at the parts, you cannot necessarily get an understanding of the whole. What if you could look at the problem of innovation as whole, as one thing? What would you see? If you are like most people, what you would see are systems, systems that we call "the economy" and "the market" and "the company," systems in which companies and customers and competitors are all actors, working to optimize their own unique positions. Innovating at the level of this system is called "business model innovation," and it is the leading edge of innovation today. Business model innovation is the most powerful of the three types of innovation. While continuous and discontinuous innovations in products and services are important and necessary, the companies that innovate in the structure of their businesses, particularly in how they define their relationships with customers, become the leaders. Business model innovators look at the market and see something different than others see -- they see possibilities that others have overlooked, and they transform those possibilities into competitive advantages, and profits. Properly managed and properly targeted, innovation can lead directly to the bottom line.

Keywords

Innovation; three dimension; innovation targets; change; R and D

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Author

Dr. Kong-Hee Kim is Associate Professor of Management at St. Cloud State University in Minnesota and serves as the chair of Management Department. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Texas in Arlington with a specialization in Strategic Management. His primary research areas of interest include corporate governance, strategic decision making, top management team, and global strategy. He has published articles in research publications including the Journal of Business Research; International Journal of Organizational Analysis; Career Development International; and Journal of Management Research. Prior to his academic career, he has served more than 11 years in the Korean Air Force, conducting various managerial positions in both Air Force headquarters and flight wings.

Abstract

Prior empirical research on CEO duality board structure has paid little attention to deep structures (tacit forces that govern the process, such as managerial task environment and social process) that modify the CEO duality-performance linkage. An empirical examination of 290 Fortune 1000 companies shows that CEO duality is related to superior firm performance when the firm’s task environment is characterized by extensive business diversification, which highlights the structural benefit of organizational flexibility derived from CEO duality. However, counter-balancing tacit forces relative to CEO duality, such as institutional ownership concentration, board tenure, and board tenure heterogeneity, have negative moderating impacts on the relationship between CEO duality and firm performance. Implications of the results are discussed for future research.

Keywords

CEO duality; deep structure; corporate diversification; institutional ownership concentration; board tenure; board tenure heterogeneit

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Authors

Dr. Mohammad Alawin is Associate Professor in Economics, Faculty of Business, the University of Jordan. He has obtained his Ph.D. of Economics from Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA. His specialty and fields of interest include International Economics, Financial Economics, Monetary Theory, and Econometrics. He has published widely in both English and Arabic.

Dr. Mohaned AL-Hamdi joined the faculty in the Economics Department as an Assistant Professor in the Fall of 2008. Prior to that, he was the Lentz Fellow of Conflict and Peace Research at the University of Missouri-Saint Louis. Also he was an Assistant Professor at Gulf University for Science and Technology (GUST) in Kuwait. He earned a B.S. in Mathematics, M.A. in Economics, and M.S. in Mathematics from the University of Central Missouri. He earned his Ph.D. in Economics from Kansas State University in 2005. His research interest is in the field of conflict theory, defense economics, mathematical economics, political economy, and the history of economic thought. He has taught classes in microeconomics, macroeconomics, managerial economics, economics of war, econometrics, money and banking, and international conflict theory. He advises many government agencies, including the State Department about the economic, political, and security environment in Iraq and the Middle East, and he has worked on the evaluation of many projects regarding the U.S. reconstruction programs in Iraq.

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between income distribution and economic growth in Jordan for the period 1987-2010. Using a Granger causality test and a Johansen cointegration test, the results indicate that income distribution affects and causes economic growth, and there is a long-run relationship between the two variables. This paper also applied the Kuznets inverted U-Hypothesis to the case of Jordan. The results indicate that the relationship between economic growth and inequality in income distribution follows the Kuznets inverted U-Hypothesis in Jordan for the period of the study.

Keywords

economic growth; income distribution; granger causality; Jordan

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Author

Eyad Taha Al Rawashdeh Department of business administration, Tafila Technical University, Tafila, Jordan

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate organizational justice and its impact upon job performance in the Jordanian Customs Department (JCD). A random sample consisting of (536) employees was selected to achieve the purpose of this study. A statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. The study revealed that there is an impact in organizational justice upon job performance in the JCD and the availability of organizational justice dimension leads to high employment performance. Also, the result of the study showed that organizational justice affects job performance. The study recommends encouragement of employees in the JCD by providing financial and incorporeal support, establishing the organizational climate, which will support the employees' performance in the JCD.

Keywords

Jordan; procedural justice; distributive justice; interactional justice

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Authors

Dr. Ram Kesavan is Professor of Marketing, University of Detroit, Mercy, Michigan, USA. Professor Kesavan teaches marketing and entrepreneurship. He has counseled over 300 small businesses, mostly minority owned. He has authored over 50 articles and a manuscript on international strategic marketing. Some of his work has been published in the Journal of Consumer Research and the Journal of Academy of Marketing Science. He has served as the Sam Walton Free Enterprise Fellow. He is the treasurer of the Marketing Management Association. Dr. Kesavan has a Ph.D. from the University of Rochester, New York, USA. He joined the university in 1980.

Dr. Mike Bernacehi is a Professor of Marketing, University of Detroit, Mercy, Michigan, USA. Professor Bernacchi teaches marketing management, consumer behavior, marketing communications, research, and corporate social responsibility. He has a B.A. and M.A. from Drake University (Des Moines, Iowa, USA), a Ph.D from Southern Illinois University, and a J. D. from the University of Detroit. Bernacchi is a frequent contributor and consultant to business, not-for-profit organizations, and the media. He publishes a weekly marketing newsletter, Under the Mike-Roscope. He joined the university in 1973.

Abstract

While the manufacturing of goods has been off-shored from the U.S since the early 1980s, the off-shoring of services started much later. China became the off-shoring hub for manufacturing and India for services. In this paper, we focus on the nature of growth and the motivation towards the off-shoring of services to India. The future of services off-shoring from the U.S to India, along with its challenges, will be explored. Figure 1 is from Blinder (2009) and presents a typology for offshorability of services. Table 1 presents some major service offshoring corporations as of 2010. Table 2 categorizes the literature to date. After analyzing the available evidence, we conclude that in the long run, 1) off-shoring presents a win-win for both nations and 2) it presents significant opportunities for worldwide growth of entrepreneurship in both the U.S, India, and beyond.

Keywords

outsourcing services; offshore; market; economic growth

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Authors

Dr. Lucia Maria Barbosa De Oliveira has a Ph.D in industrial relations from the London School of Economics. She currently serves as Dean of Master of Business Administration for Professionals - Faculdade Boa Viagem - FBV/DeVry, Brazil. Her research focus is on human resources management, mainly in the following topics: organizational and cultural diversity, spirituality in the organizations, social responsibility, and human resources processes and models. E-mail: loliveira3@fbv.edu.br

Elda Lucia Paiva Madruga has a master degree in Business Administration and is currently teaching Business Administration professional courses at Faculdade Boa Viagem – FBV/ DeVry. She is a consultant for educational corporations and human resources processes. Her research interests include human resources, corporate education, and social responsibility. E-mail: elda.madruga@hotmail.com

Dr. Maria Auxiliadora Diniz De Sá is a Ph.D. Of Labor and Organizations Psychology from Université f de Rouen, France. She is a Professor of Business Administration and teaches professional courses at Faculdade Boa Viagem – FBV/ DeVry, Brazil. She is also a researcher in labor relations, human resources, and organizational behavior, mainly focusing on organizational culture and commitment, individual culture, and quality of work life. E-mail: msa@fbv.edu.br

Dr. Helder Pontes Regis is a Ph.D. in Business Administration from UFPE - PROPAD - Brazil. He is currently teaching management graduate course at UFRPE - Brazil. His research focuses are entrepreneurship and organizational behavior, mainly in motivation, mentoring, social networks, entrepreneurial cognition, incubators, and quantitative methods applied to management. E-mail: hregis@hotlink.com.br

Abstract

This study examined the motivation of Banco do Brasil’s (Bank of Brazil's) employees to participate in volunteer programs based on the theory of expectancy. The methodology combined qualitative and quantitative approaches. The individual rewards were the first focus of the respondents, followed by social improvement and contribution for social inclusion, and even benefits to the company. Some negative aspects were also registered concerning the lack of time and being professionally overworked. Results are consistent with previous studies of the theory of expectancy, which support that people will choose the option according to individual perception of the value associated to various kinds of rewards.

Keywords

motivation; theory of expectancy; corporate volunteering programs; Banco do Brasil; Brazil

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Author

Dr. Adel Mohammed Sarea received his Ph.D. in Accounting from the Islamic Science University of Malaysia in 2011. Dr. Adel joined Ahlia University in January 2012 as Assistant Professor. He conducted research in the area of accounting for Islamic financial institutions and published in the journals of repute, as well as supervised students for BS & MBA.

Abstract

The accounting and auditing organization for Islamic financial institutions (AAOIFI) has taken the proper initiative to develop accounting, auditing, governance, ethics, and Shari’ah standards for Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs). The AAOIFI standards serve as a guideline that may reflect the unique characteristics of IFIs and become a useful tool to meet the various needs of IFIs. Currently, one the major challenges facing Islamic Financial Institutions (IFSs) lies in the preparation of financial statements under different accounting standards and which may result to problem of comparability, reliability and compliance level’s measurement. This has, however, resulted in a heated debate among scholars that has hitherto translated to the evolving existing literature surrounding the interpretation of the level of compliance with the Islamic accounting standards. This paper, therefore, discusses the Islamic accounting standards through a review of the literature. Overall, the evidence reviewed suggests that the need of the Islamic accounting standards to fill the gap in the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) countries. This paper concludes with various recommendations for future research, the most important of which is the need for future studies to be done to implement the Islamic accounting standards, such as the AAOIFI accounting standards. The current paper, therefore, contributes to a better understanding and acceptability of the Islamic accounting standards, such the AAOIFI.

Keywords

Islamic accounting; Islamic financial institutions; AAOIFI; accounting; standards

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Authors

Ahmad M. O. Gharaibeh and Fatima Ismail Hammadi. Ahlia,University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain s III

Abstract

The objective of this study is to examine the existence and the conditional nature of one of the most recognized anomalies, known as “the day-of-the-week anomaly,” that has jarred confidence in the conventional concepts of the efficient market hypothesis. A variety of statistical techniques -- multiple regression analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and t-test – have been employed to investigate the presence and the nature of the week-end effect on the Bahraini Stock Exchange. The study concludes that there is credible evidence for demonstrating the existence of the day-of-the-week effect in trading conducted through the medium of the Bahraini Stock market (albeit that the Bahraini market exemplifies only weak form market efficiency). In addition, this study demonstrates with respect to the Bahrain Stock Exchange that there is a positive correlation between returns on the first trading day of the week and the last trading day of the week and that the first trading day’s returns during the first half of the month exceeds that of the second half of the month.

Keywords

Bahrain; stock market; the day-of-the-week-anomaly; market effect

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Authors

Dr. Mahmoud Mousavi Shiri obtained his Ph.D. in Accounting. So far, he published 20 papers in national journals and 25 papers in international journals. Currently, he is an assistant professor of Accounting at Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

Dr. Mahdi Salehi obtained his Ph.D. in Accountancy. So far, he has published more than 160 papers in international journals. He serves on an editorial board of 18 international journals. Currently, he is an Assistant Professor of Accounting at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

Researchers indicate that if the market value of the stock in a firm exceeds its true value, this overvaluation affects the managerial behaviors and corporation actions. Thus, for investigating the impact of equity overvaluation on consequent, income-increasing earnings management financial data of 60 listed companies were collected from Tehran Stock Exchange during 2006-2010. Consequently, regression analysis for testing correlation regressions was employed. Results of the study indicate that equity overvaluation had a positive and significant relationship with subsequent income-increasing earnings management. The results indicate that firm's management tended to support valuation errors to access the benefits of a rising stock price through discretionary accrual's manipulation, when stock would become overvalued by market.

Keywords

overvalued equity; earnings management; discretionary accruals; valuation errors

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Author

Dr. Sameh M. Reda Reyad received his Ph.D. in Accounting from Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt, in 2008. He worked as an Accounting Lecturer in the Higher Technological Institute, 10th of Ramadan City-Egypt. Dr. Reyad joined Ahlia University in February 2009 as an assistant professor; he has over 18 years of experience in research, training, and teaching. He has published many papers and worked as a reviewer for several regional and international journals. He became a Certified Management Accountant (CMA) & Member in the Institute of Certified Management (USA) in March 2009.

Abstract

This study explores the relationship between external auditing quality as a tool of corporate governance and the level of earnings quality in Egypt. This was accomplished by reviewing the literature and previous studies related to corporate governance, auditing quality, and earnings quality, then analyzing the relationship between the characteristics of the auditing quality at auditing firms and the possibility of reducing the total accruals as one of the indicators of the quality of earnings at the industrial corporations listed on the Egyptian exchange. The study model examined the relationship between the independent variables of auditing quality characteristics and the dependent variable of total accruals by using the multiple regression of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Data of (60) corporations of the industrial sector for the period 2005-2010, which were arranged in a way that makes it possible to apply the Pooled Data Regression. The study concluded that there was an acceptable level of earnings quality in the industrial corporations listed on Egyptian exchange ,there was an accepted level of the Auditing quality in Egyptian auditing firms, there was a positive impact on reducing the total accruals in the industrial corporations listed on the Egyptian exchange, thus improving the quality of earning for each of the specialties in a client's industry, the relationship with international audit firms, and auditor’s qualifications.. On the other hand, there was a negative impact on reducing the total accruals for the client retention period.

Keywords

corporate governance; auditing quality; earnings quality; Egyptian Industrial corporations

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Author

Dr. Alaka N. Rao is an Assistant Professor in Organization and Management in the College of Business, San Jose State University. Dr. Rao received her Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior from the Graduate School of Management at the University of California, Irvine and her Bachelor Degree in Economics from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Rao’s research centers on the management of complex collaborations across geographical and cultural divides. Her current research focuses on how local and global pressures influence the performance of global outsourcing relationships. This research examines the critical role of national culture, employee cognition, and trust in the management of global collaborations. Dr. Rao has also conducted research on how managers exchange and build trust in countries lacking institutional support. Her work has been published in management journals, such as the Journal of International Business Studies.

Abstract

A theoretical framework for understanding the influence of power on the effectiveness of global outsourcing relationships is presented in this article.llowing a review of the research on inter-organizational relationships and the literature on Hofstede’s cultural measure of power distance, I propose that the differences in the levels of power distance create particular intra-organizational dynamics by influencing trust, status competition, and role ambiguity within the organization. These variables are subsequently argued to impact the inter-organizational relationship by acting as a mediating mechanism between power distance across levels of analysis and outsourcing effectiveness. Lastly, the moderating role of the type of knowledge outsourced is considered. The relationship between power and inter-organizational effectiveness is argued to be weaker when tacit knowledge is outsourced than when knowledge is explicit. The implications of this model to research on cultural values and the effective management of global outsourcing relationships are discussed.

Keywords

cultural values; power distance; global outsourcing relationships

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Authors

Hung-Yue Suen is a PhD candidate of Management Information System in National Chengchi University, and holds a MBA Degree from National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. He is also a Department Head of International Affairs at Taiwan Life Financial Group. His main research interests include Human Resource Technology and e-Commerce. His study works have been presented in several international conferences and journals. He can be reached at collin.suen@gmail.com

Dr. Jiann-Min Yang, Ph.D. in Management Science, University of Texas at Dallas, USA, is a Professor of Department of Management Information System, National Chengchi University. Among his research interests are: research methodology, knowledge management, enterprise system, and operations research. Professor Yang’s research has been presented published in a dozen scientific outlets such as international journals and books, while he is a reviewer for several SCI/SSCI Journals.

Abstract

Although Information Technology (IT) is often considered a driver of change within the Human Resource (HR) function, the required competencies related to job performance for HR professionals in the computing environment have received little attention in HR or IT literature. This paper seeks to explore the possible HR/IT competency predictors of job performance within different HR roles. A data mining approach was used to explore the prediction model, and an in-depth interview was designed to probe the key findings of the results andexplore the context in more detail, in which 501 HR professionals within ten financial service companies in Taiwan participated. The study found the different combination of IT and HR competencies have a different performance predictive impact on the different roles for the HR professional. Overall,results suggest that the Credible Activist rated as the most salient and important competence for HR professionals and some competencies may not be as important as a matter of course. The research establishes a holistic view guiding the direction and content of the future development of HR practitioners in computing environment.

Keywords

IT competencies; HR competencies; HR roles

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Authors

Dr. Allam Mohammed Mousa Hamdan Ph.D. in accounting, is an Assistant Professor of Accounting, who is teaching currently at Department of Accounting, College of Business and Finance, Ahlia University. Dr. Hamdan can be reached at ahamdan@ahliauniversity.edu.bh

Dr. Adel Mohammed Sareareceived his Ph.D. in Accounting from Islamic Science University of Malaysia in 2011. Dr. Adel joined Ahlia University in January, 2012 as Assistant Professor. He Conducted research in the area of accounting for Islamic Financial Institutions and published in the journals of repute as well as supervised students for BS & MBA. He can be reached at Adel Mohammed Sarea College of Business and Finance, Ahlia University, Kingdom of Bahrain

Dr. Sameh M. Reda Reyad was born in 1973. He received his Ph.D. in Accounting from Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt in 2008. He worked as Accounting Lecturer in Higher Technological Institute, 10th of Ramadan City-Egypt. Dr. Sameh joined Ahlia University in February, 2009 as Assistant Professor, he had over 18-year experience in research, training and teaching. He published many papers in regional and international journals. Dr. Sameh became Certified Management Accountant (CMA) & Member in the Institute of Certified Management (USA) in March 2009. He worked as Reviewer in several regional and international journals.

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between audit committee characteristics (namely: audit committee size, financial experience, and audit committee independence) on performance, which includes financial, operating and stock performance. The study sample contained 106 corporations from the financial sector listed in the Amman Stock Exchange Market with a total of 212 observations during the 2008-2009 sample years. The results showed that the audit committee has an impact on financial and stock performance. It does not have an effect on operating performance.

Keywords

audit committee characteristics; performance; Amman stock exchange

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Authors

Liu Jiao-hua is Ph.D. Candidate in the College of Economics; Management at Huazhong Agricultural University. Liu’s research interests include rural economy and agricultural finance and trade. Liu can be reached at Huazhong Agricultural University, No.1 Shizishan Street, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, China E-mail:jiaohualiu@163.com

Dr. Li Chang-jian is Professor who is currently teaching in the College of Economics & Management, Huazhong Agricultural University. His research interests mainly include farmers’ right and rural economy.

Abstract

Chinese agricultural commodities prices have fluctuated violently, which affected the people's lives, as well as farmers’ income. The article, based on the VAR model and using the data from 1979 to 2010, analyzes the effect of agricultural commodities price increase on farmers’ income, and finds that price fluctuations of agricultural commodities influence farmers’ income remarkably. The increase in agricultural commodities prices will initially increase farmers’ income, and then decrease them. Therefore, only stabilizing agricultural commodities price can ensure that farmers’ income will increase steadily

Keywords

agricultural commodities price; farmers’ income; VAR model; impulse response function; agriculture industrialization

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Author

Eiad Basher Al Hyasat, Business Administration, Aqaba University College – Al Balqa Applied University, Jordan

Abstract

This study aims to identify the management information systems and the degree of their usage in Jordan Phosphate Mines Company, by acknowledging the extent of their use in terms of accuracy, comprehensiveness, timing, clarity and flexibility of information. The study demonstrates that the management information systems are used in terms of accuracy and comprehensiveness, clarity, timing and flexibility of the information in them. Moreover, the study also exhibited that there is not any statistically significant difference in the degree of the use of management information systems of the employees of Jordan Phosphate Company attributed to the variables of gender, age, and occupation. The most important recommendation of the study is the necessity to develop the information system in order to provide brief, concise and adequate information, and thus, the output of the information system will be comprehensive and able to be represented in charts, graphs and other diagrams

Keywords

management information systems; Jordan Phosphate Mines Company; accuracy; comprehensiveness; timing; clarity; flexibility of information

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Authors

Ram Kesavan and Michael D. Bernacchi
University of Detroit Mercy, 4001 W. McNichols Road, Detroit, MI, USA
Oswald A. J. Mascarenhas
Saint Aloysius College, Mangalore, India

Abstract

We explore the prospects for CSR as an important branding tool, using social media. We cite current CSR social media related efforts of some major corporations. We argue that despite their successful efforts in developing CSR programs via traditional media, firms are more empowered for disseminating their corporate CSR efforts when using the social media. We strongly recommend that the social media be used as a tool for effectively communicating an organization’s CSR activities. We, also, investigate managerial implications of our major arguments in this paper.

Keywords

corporate social responsibility; social media; branding component; managerial implication

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Author

Dr. Khaled M. S. Faqih is an assistant professor in the Department of Information Systems at Al al-Bayt University, Jordon. He received B.Sc. (Hons.) in aeronautical and astronautical engineering degree from the University of Southampton, England, in 1983. He joined the Royal Jordanian Air Force for 16 years. He received a master degree in Information Technology from the University of Science Malaysia, Malaysia, in 2002. He has been working as a lecturer since 2002 at Al al-Bayt University, Jordan, teaching various topics in information technology. He received a Ph.D. in Management Information Systems, in 2010, from the University of Banking and Financial Sciences, Jordan. His research interests, in addition to the aerodynamics of natural flight, include software reliability, web usability, web computing and adoption of online and mobile shopping.

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of perceived risk and Internet self-efficacy on the consumers’intentions to use online channels for purchases in Jordan. To examine the above perception, a research model is proposed based on an extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A non-probability sampling technique has been used in this study to collect data by means of a self-administered questionnaire that was developed from previously validated measurements. Ten hypotheses were formulated and tested by Partial Least Squares (PLS) path modeling technique. The empirical findings reveal that perceived risk, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease-of-use have direct impact on the consumers’ behavioral intention to use online channel for purchase. Furthermore, the current findings display that the Internet self-efficacy has no direct significant impact on consumers’ intention to shop online in Jordan. However, the Internet self-efficacy has indirect influence on consumers’ intentions toward online shopping through the intermediating factors of perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use. It can be concluded that perceived ease-of-use, perceived usefulness, perceived risk, and Internet self-efficacy can be considered important determinants in influencing consumers’ intentions toward online shopping behavior in Jordan. Managerial implications are provided.

Keywords

online shopping; perceived risk; Internet self-efficacy; technology acceptance model; Partial Least Squares

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Author

Dr. Yung-Sung Chiang received his Ph.D. degree from Department of Business Management at National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan. His current research focuses on the areas of consumer research, IS service quality, web service quality, and e-marketing. He now works for Taiwan Power Company as an administrative officer. He can be reached at u158319@taipower.com.tw

Han-Jen Niu is an Associate professor in the Department of Management Science at the Tamkang University. Her research areas include innovation, behavior research, technology management and strategy management. She can be reached at freyaniu@gmail.com

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between advertising expenditure and price level as joint signals of product quality in marketing practices and consumer perception research. This study, based on a sound literature review, utilizes game modeling from a signal economic perspective to examine whether advertising and price can be substantially used to determine product quality. There is often insufficient information on product quality before consumers make their purchases, and advertising and price indeed signal product quality. Situational decision making is what manufacturers consider doing, and this study combines the 4P strategy in the Product Life Cycle (PLC), and provides a skeleton description of managerial implications.

Keywords

signal theory; game theory; advertising; price; product quality

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